Maryland Plantations

"By the latter part of the 17th century, the development of the plantation economy of Maryland was well established. The shift of political power from English nobles to wealthy planters and fewer indentured servants coming from Europe, created a need for more and cheaper sources of labor. Slavery was legalized in Maryland by 1664, only 30 years after the colony's founding. Importation of captured and kidnapped enslaved Africans increased, with Maryland and Virginia importing about 6,000 enslaved people directly from the African continent by 1700. By 1719, 30 percent of Maryland's population was of African descent. African enslaved populations continued to grow for the next 50 years. To quench their own lust for goods, wealth and power, leaders of coastal African nations preyed on their enemies and were all too eager to supply the conquered and the kidnapped to Europeans and their colonists. Europeans took advantage of this discord..."

Source:The Historical Marker Database
https://www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=146563

"Enslaved Africans in Maryland came from many cultures, such as Igbo, Asante, and the Angolan peoples. In Maryland's early trade, most were sold and transported from the Gold and Windward Coasts of Africa. Many enslaved had endured a long march to the coast and weeks or months in captivity in fortresses like Cape Coast Castle. From there, they would be rowed out to the slave ships.

 

Most of these vessels were merchant ships outfitted to carry human cargo. On one such ship, the Generous Jenny, some people may have been below decks for months. People would be chained together on overcrowded, disease ridden ships, exposed to abuse, and unable to understand the language of their captors or their fellow prisoners. Many records from the Royal African Company in the early 18th century do not survive. There were other ships intended for the Patuxent in Maryland whose voyages were thwarted..."

Source:
The Historical Marker Database

https://www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=146563

Owners: The Bowles Family 1700-1728

James Bowles
Purchased 2000 acres of Resurrection Manor on the Patuxent River to grow tobacco and create trade which included slaves.

Participated in the slave trade and was an agent for the Royal African Company

 

July 6, 1720

The slave ship, Generous Jenny arrives from Cape Coast Castle in West Africa with 260 Slaves:

124 Men, 112 Women, 26 Boys, 8 girls to
James Bowles at Patuxent River in MD.
Captain of the ship,Capt Lamberth reports 29 slaves died of small pox

Bowles ships 218 slaves to Virginia on the Generous Jenny to be sold.
 

1727
Bowles died, leaving his property and 41 slaves to his wife, Rebecca Tasker Addison (Bowles) and three daughters

Eleanor, Mary and Jane.

Rebecca marries George Plater II. Plater inherits her estate...They have 4 children:
Rebecca, Elizabeth, Thomas, George III

 

1738

Two slaves, Judy and Pompey are accused, jailed and hanged for poisoning the overseer and gardener.

1755

George Plater III, inherits his father's plantation. It is then named the Sotterley Plantation after the Platt family home in Suffolk England.

1764

George Plater III marries his 2nd wife, Elizabeth Rousby of Calvert County, MD.

Their 5 children are:

Ann, Rebecca, Thomas, George IV and John Rousby.

1781

The British raid Sotterley Plantation and 3 slaves, Nace, Charlie and Phil. George Plater III writes letter requesting their return from New York...

1783

The British raid Sotterley Plantation again and hang the overseer. Some slaves escape...No names mention.

1786 A slave named Towerhill escapes Sotterley...

1788- A slave sale at Sotterley. Plater advertises men, women, boys and girls.
A slave named Clem Hill, escapes


1791

George Platter III becomes the 6th governor of Maryland. A slave named Joseph escapes...


1792

George Plater IV inherits Sotterley

 

1802

Both George Plater IV and his wife die. Their children George V and his sister, Anna are orphans. John Rousby Plater becomes master at Sotterley his young nephew George Plater V.

1814

Four Sotterley slaves James Bowie,

Peregrine Young, Joseph Wood and Ignatius Seale join the British who return and burn stores and buildings...John Rousby Plater is confronted and see his former slaves armed and standing with the British...39 men women and children come aboard the HMS Norse as reported by British Capt Joseph Norse. By September, 48 slaves have escaped Sotterley.

1815

The formerly enslaved Munroe, Seale and Coursey families receive a small parcel of land in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

James Bowie and Joseph Wood are awarded land in Trinidad...Peregrine Young died on the British ship, Albion.

1820

George Platter V becomes master of Sotterley and has 19 slaves and 3 free black working on the property.

1822

George Platter V sells Sotterley to his step uncle, William Clark Somerville.

1823

John Rousby Plater  and his son ship a cargo of slaves, mostly very young children on the Brig Intelligence ship from Baltimore  and they arrive at the Port of New Orleans on April 5. George Platter V ships one mulatto girl named Darkey with this same cargo.

Sotterley Plantation is divided into smaller parcels. Thomas Barber buys 1000 acres which is what remains as Sotterley. His 3rd wife, Martha Dellam Wellmore (she dies Nov 1924) and her 14 year old daughter Emaline, move on the premises...Barber has children from other marriages: Mary, Lydia and Caesar.

1826

The British pays reparations to slave owners for slaves lost during the War of 1812. John Rousby Plater receives payment for slaves who escaped to the British.

Emeline Dallum Welmore marries Walter Hanson Stone Briscoe in August. In December, Thomas Barber dies and leaves Sotterley and the slaves to his stepdaughter, Emaline and his daughter Lydia...

1827

Emeline and Walter Briscoe have their first child. All 13 of their children are born at Sotterly.

1827

Walter Briscoe and Lydia's husband legally divide Sotterley's 1000 acres. The Briscoe's get 400 acres and the main house, while the Billingsleys get the remaining 600 acres. This affects slave families.

1849

Birth of Francis "Frank" Cane, son of Hilry Cane, an enslaved man owned by Chapman Billingsley. Dr. Walter Briscoe buys Hilry's wife Mariah Morgan Cane and their 4 children in a private sale which includes baby Frank. He was bought for $50.

1851

Mariah Cane dies and is buried at Sotterley.
HIlry Cane marries Alice Elsa Bond who is owned by Walter Brisco.

1861

Fearing slave uprisings, Walter Briscoe becomes a surgeon for the Smallwood Vigilantes, organized for the white males who patrolled the area.

Chapman Billingsley serves on the County Committee pf Public Safety which supplies arms to the white men in the county.

1862

Three of Walter Briscoe's sons, Henry, David and Chapman enlist in the 1st Maryland Infantry which consists of Confederate volunteers.

 

1863

Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation which frees slaves of Confederate States. This does NOT include Maryland.

Walter Briscoe's slaves, Georgiana Shaw and George Washington Barnes are married by Friar Cotton at St. John's Catholic Church in St. Mary's County.

George Washington Barnes at 26 years old, enlists in the 7th Regiment, Company I of the USCT.

The Army changes his last name to Briscoe.

William Barnes and William Francis escape from Sotterley Plantation but are recaptured in Prince Georges County, MD.

Henrietta Hall, a slave, escapes from Sotterley.

1864

Maryland officially abolishes slavery on  November 1.


1866

George Washington Briscoe (Barns) USCT 7th regiment dies of cholera in Indianola, Tx. His wife, Georgianna Shaw (Barnes) has changed her name to Briscoe while living in Baltimore

1867
Walter Briscoe creates a list of 53 slaves he owned at emancipation in order to receive government compensation. The record is called The Slave Statistics.

1868

Formerly enslaved Frank Cane and Evelina Stewart are married at Sotterley Plantation in the drawing room of the Sotterley manor house in February by 

Rev. Murphy of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church. 

 

1872 

Walter Briscoe's daughter, Jeanette  Briscoe Thomas become principal at St. Mary's Female Seminary which would later become St Mary's College of Maryland. 

1885

Walter Briscoe dies...The Briscoes and many of their descendants are buried at St. Andrews.

1887

Briscoe's son Rev. James Briscoe buys the Sotterley Plantation after the death of his mother, Emeline Dallum Welmore (Briscoe)

1900

NY Lawyer, Capt. Herbert Livingston Satterlee, marries Louis Pierpont Morgan the eldest daughter of John Pierpont Morgan aka (J.P. Morgan)

in NYC on November 15 and in 1901 their first child, Mabel Morgan Satterlee is born.

1901 
Herbert Satterlee's cousin, Henry Yates Satterlee, Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington, D.C. makes his first visit to St Andrews Episcopal Church in St. Mary's County. This is the church that Sotterley families, the Briscoes and Platers attended for over 150 years. He meets with the descendants of both families....

1902

Bishop Henry Satterlee makes a second visit to Sotterley and tells his cousin, Herbert that the property may be for sale.

1904

Rev James Briscoe's children, Elizabeth Briscoe (Cashner) and James, Jr inherit Sotterley. Elizabeth buys out her James Jr.'s share.  

1905

Herbert and Louise Morgan Satterlee's 2nd daughter, Eleanor is born. In 1906 they visit Sotterly and ask Elizabeth to let them know if she wants to sell the property. Herbert traces his ancestry to Suffolk and believes he is related to the Platers of Sotterley. There is a trend of wealthy northerners eager to buy southern plantations and estates: part of the Colonial Revival. When many confederate statues were being erected. 

1910
Herbert Satterlee buys Sotterley and surrounding land to restore the acreage back to 1000 and hires Charles Knott as farm manager. Walter Barber and James Scribner are black descendants who worked for the Cashners and continued to work for Herbert Satterlee.

1915-1917
Herbert Satterlee puts into action his romanticized vision of colonial life through a large restoration project, to celebrate the Plater family history at Sotterley Plantation. 

1929
Herbert Satterlee continues to pay workers at Sotterley during The Great Depression.

1946
Louisa Morgan (Satterlee) dies Oct 6 at 80.

1947

Herbert Satterlee dies July 14 at 83.

1949
Mabel Satterlee (Ingalls) buys Sotterley from her father's Estate for 120k. She's the last private owner. 

The Scriber, Barber and Knott families continue working at Sotterley.

1951

Eleanor Satterlee dies April 11 at 45 from cancer. 

1960

Charles Knott retires from Sotterley after 50  years..

1961 Mabel Satterlee (Ingalls) creates the non-profit Sotterley foundation and opens the plantation to the public. 

1972

Sotterley is listed on the National Register of historic places

Agnes Cane (Callum) traces the ancestry  her family of family enslaved at Sotterley during the 19th Century.

1970-1990

Sotterley is still owned by Mabel Satterlee (Ingalls) which she visits. She also charges a small fee for guests to stay for weekends and extended vacations.

She relied on Eliabeth Harmon, Richard and Edward Knott, Ruth Barber and members of the Scriber family to care for the grounds and the day to day operations of care and upkeep for tourists. She sold off all but 94 acres...

1993 Mabel; Satterlee (Ingalls dies leaving the remaining 94 acres of the plantation to the  Sotterley Foundation.

1996

Owner and descendent John Hanson Briscoe and Agnes Cane (Callum), descendent of slaves that worked there continue to raise awareness and funding as the site is listed as of of 11 Most Endangered Historic Sites.

2001

Sotterley becomes a National Historic Landmark

Sotterley Plantation

Sotterley TImeline:

350 years in 24 minutes.

1:James , MSA SC 5496-50999
refugees that escaped from Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, during the War of 1812. At age 6, James escaped from Sotterley on July 22, 1814 
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2:Peregrine Young, MSA SC 5496-51075
Mary's County, Maryland, 1814 Biography: Peregrine Young lived on Sotterley Plantation in ... most valuable slave to escape from Sotterley during the War 
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3:John Seale, MSA SC 5496-51003
John Seale lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. Between July 22 and 25, 1814, John escaped from Sotterley 
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4:Mathew Coursey, MSA SC 5496-51071
claimed escaped from Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, during the War of 1812. At age 8, Mathew escaped with his family from Sotterley on July 22, 1814 
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5:Susannah Coursey, MSA SC 5496-51081
Susannah Coursey was one of the forty-eight refugees that escaped from Sotterley ... Plater V. George Plater V inherited Sotterley in 1802 after the deaths of his father ... ...
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6:Maria Seale MSA SC 5496-051223
Maria Seale lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. Between July 22 and 25, 1814, Maria escaped from Sotterley 
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7:Mary Young, MSA SC 5496-50980
Mary Young, also known as Molly, lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as one of Colonel John R. Plater's slaves. At age 35, Mary escaped from Sotterley ... ...
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8:Frankey Seale, MSA SC 5496-50981
Biography: Franky Seale lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. At age 20, Benjamin escaped from Sotterley in July of 1814 
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9:Benjamin Seale, MSA SC 5496-50984
Biography: Benjamin Seale lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. At age 5, Benjamin escaped from Sotterley in July of 1814 
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10:Catherine S. Young, MSA SC 5496-50986
Catherine S. Young lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, as one of Colonel John R. Plater’s slaves. At age 20, Catherine escaped from Sotterley 

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11:Ester Seale, MSA SC 5496-50992
Ester Coursey was one of the forty-eight refugees that escaped from Sotterley Plantation ... On July 22, 1814, 
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12:Gerard Munroe, MSA SC 5496-50993
Biography: Gerard Munroe lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. At age 14, Gerard escaped Sotterley in July of 1814 
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13:Grace Munroe, MSA SC 5496-50994
Mary's County, Maryland, 1814 Biography: Grace Munroe lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. 
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14:Henry Young, MSA SC 5496-50996
Biography: Henry Young lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as one of Colonel John R. Plater's slaves. At age 13, Henry escaped from Sotterley 
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15:Jesse Wood, MSA SC 5496-51002
Jesse wood lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. Between July 22 and 25, 1814, Jesse escaped from Sotterley 
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16:John Young, MSA SC 5496-51005
Biography: John Young lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as one of John R. Plater's slaves. At age 14, John escaped from Sotterley 
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17:Lewis Munroe, MSA SC 5496-51008
Mary's County, Maryland, 1814 Biography: Lewis Munroe lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. At Sotterley
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18:Peggy Seale, MSA SC 5496-51074
Peggy Seale spent her childhood on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. At age 8, Peggy escaped with her family from Sotterley i
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19:Stephen Coursey, MSA SC 5496-51080
R. Plater claimed escaped from Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, during the War of 1812. At age 37, Stephen escaped from Sotterley on July 22, 1814
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20:Maria Woods MSA SC 5496-051225
Biography: Maria Wood lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. Between July 22 and 25, 1814, Maria escaped Sotterley 
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21:Kitty Munroe, MSA SC 5496-51007
Kitty Munroe spent her infancy on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. At age 2, Kitty escaped Sotterley in July of 1814 
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22:Lewis Munroe, MSA SC 5496-51009
Lewis Munroe spent his infancy on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. When Lewis was three years old, he escaped Sotterley in July
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23:Peggy Coursey, MSA SC 5496-51073
Peggy Coursey was one of the forty-eight refugees to escape from Sotterley Plantation during the War of 1812. At age 14, Peggy escaped from Sotterley on July 25, 1814
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24:Richard Munroe, MSA SC 5496-51078
Richard Munroe spent his early childhood on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. At age 5, Richard escaped Sotterley in July of 1814 
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25:Mary Ann Young MSA SC 5496-051226
Mary Ann Young lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of Colonel John R. Plater. At age 9, Mary Ann escaped from Sotterley
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26:James Thomas, MSA SC 5496-51001
James Thomas lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as a slave of John R. Plater. Between July 22 and 25, 1814, James escaped from Sotterley 
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27:Prince Young, MSA SC 5496-51077
Prince Young lived on Sotterley Plantation in St. Mary's County, Maryland, as one of Colonel John R. Plater's slaves. At age 60, Prince escaped from Sotterley 
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28:Cornelius Wildman, MSA SC 5496-50987
at $550. Unlike the other slaves in the reparations claim, Cornelius did not escape from Sotterley Plantation
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Source: Maryland State Archives

Source: Sotterley Plantation (Images of America)

Source: Sotterley Plantation (Images of America)

Source: Sotterley Plantation (Images of America)

Source: Sotterley Plantation (Images of America)

 Early photo of unidentified woman...Location unknown 
Source: Maryland State Archives, Historical photographs of Maryland

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